Standing-up motion is an important daily activity. It has been known that elderly and post-stroke patients have difficulty in performing standing-up motion. The standing-up motion is retrained by therapists to maximize independence of the elderly and post-stroke patients, but it is not clear how the elderly and post-stroke patients control their redundant muscles to achieve standing-up motion. This study employed the concept of muscle synergy to analyze how healthy young adults, healthy elderly people and post-stroke patients control their muscles. Experimental result verified that four muscle synergies can represent human standing-up motion. In addition, it indicated that the post-stroke patients shift the weights of muscle synergies to finish standing-up motion comparing to healthy subjects. Moreover, different muscle synergy structures were associated with the CoM and joint kinematics.